Why do french fries taste amazing with a bottle of Cristal? Believe it or not, there’s a science behind it. Over the last 10 years there have been some notable advances in the study of human taste biochemistry. The science of creating perfect flavor pairings is used by star chefs, food technologists, sommeliers and even parfumeries. Below we’ll dig into an impressive food pairing chart and review basic flavor/taste pairing techniques.
Food Pairing Chart Using Complimentary Flavors
Different types of foods share flavor compounds. The thicker the line, the more shared compounds. This data can be used to invent new and amazing flavor pairings.
Difference Between Flavor and Taste
- A combination of compounds and aromas from natural ingredients: raspberry, vanilla, basil, etc.
- Any of the 6 sensed characterstics: sweet, salty, bitter, sour, umami and fat.
How to Pair by Flavor
All foods contain flavor compounds. For example, the aroma of banana and pear is a compound called isoamyl acetate. Flavor pairing is simply matching foods together that have the same flavor compounds. Want to know what foods match together? Over the last 5 years the website foodpairing.com has been steadily identifying the compounds in over 1000 different vegetables, prepared meats, spices, juices, flowers, etc. into their pairing database.
What does pork liver and jasmine have in common?
Jasmine flowers and pork liver share a compound called indole. This surprising pairing was matched at 3-Michelin-star rated restaurant, The Fat Duck in the UK.
Example of Pinot Noir Flavor Pairings
A diagram from foodpairing.com showing flavor affinities of Pinot Noir.
Explore 200+ Wines by Flavor
Discover new wines by their flavors and descriptors in this handy chart. Includes unique varietals and regions which are great alternatives to more expensive wines.
How to Pair by Taste
Our senses are not limited to flavors, we can also sense taste; a less-defined sensation that involves the texture of different molecules on our palates. Taste pairing balances the 6 tastes (salt, sweet, acid, fat, bitter and umami) with one another.
Famous American winemaker Robert Mondavi is known for saying “A meal without wine is like a day without sunshine.” Today there may actually be science to back his statement up.
A recent study conducted by Dr. Paul Breslin, a sensory biologist at Rutgers University, tested how taste components like fat, acid and astringency affect our mouths. Turns out our mouths like to maintain a careful balance. Beverages with astringency (such as black tea, beer and red wine) do a better job countering greasy food than water or fatty beverages. While this principle has been long understood as a fundamental of gastronomy, no one has really studied these principles with wine.
The 6 Taste Components
Perfect Pairing: Rootbeer Float
An ice cream float is the perfect food pairing because it connects flavor with taste. It’s a balanced taste pairing as the creamy, oily ice cream is cut down by the acidity and astringency in root beer. It is also an elegant flavor pairing as the compound vanillin found in ice cream compliments safrole; a flavor compound found in the sassafras root used to make root beer.
Wine & Food Pairing Tips
You may be a red wine only drinker. However, next time you pick wine at a restaurant challenge yourself to make a better food and wine pairing.
Food and Wine Pairing Chart
Get your own food and wine pairing chart to have this information handy when you need it most.
Know your entree before ordering wine.
Take note of the major components of your entree. For instance, are you having rich braised meat? Or are you planning on eating a tofu rice-noodle salad? If choosing the wine doesn’t make sense, try imagining soft drinks instead. Will the entree be better with Coke or Squirt? If it’s Coke friendly then it will most likely work well with red wine too.
Think about the sauces and seasoning.
Finding spice affinities in both your wine and food will help them pair better together. For instance, Zinfandel often will have notes of cinnamon and clove making it perfect with 5-spice powder-driven Asian dishes. Need another example? Black pepper is often sprinkled on steak and mushrooms. Black pepper is a flavor component often found in Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Syrah.
Sweet flavors and wine.
If you’re getting a dish that has a lot of sweet components such as orange chicken, don’t be afraid to get a sweeter wine. Lambrusco, Moscato and Riesling are blissful choices with dishes like curry, sweet and sour, and teriyaki.
Keep in mind the color of wine rule.
A basic rule of thumb is to match the color of wine with the meat. White meat? White wine. Red meat? Red wine! If you really want red wine even though you’re going to have halibut, then try to find a wine that mimics white wine characteristics. For this example you’d want to pick a lighter red wine with higher acidity and herbaceous characteristics. This way the red wine could cut through the fatty fish flavors while having lower tannins, just like a white wine would.
Example of Pinot Noir Paired with Vegetarian Food
Chemical compound analysis of foods.
Check out foodpairing.com
Article about Paul Breslin in NYT: The Chemistry Behind Great Food Pairings
Paul Breslin Study for sources: Peyrot des Gachons, C.P.; Mura, E.; Speziale, C.; Favreau, C.J.; Dubreuil, G.F.; Breslin, P.A.S (2012) Opponency of astringent and fat sensations. Current Biology, 22, R829-830.