Italian wine term for winery (cellar).
- Cap Classique
A South African producers association that focuses on the promotion of traditional method sparkling wines that are bottle fermented and aged "en tirage."
- Carbonic Maceration
A winemaking method where uncrushed grapes are placed in a sealed vat and topped with carbon dioxide. Wines created without oxygen have low tannin and color with juicy fruit flavors and bold yeast aromas. This practice is common with entry-level Beaujolais wines.
A winery farmhouse.
Italian word for castle (aka Château).
("say-paj") The grapes included in the wine. Encépagement is the proportions of the wine blend.
A wine additive process common in cool climates where sugar is added when grape sweetness isn’t high enough to produce the minimum alcohol level. Chaptalization is illegal in the United States but common in cool climate areas such as regions in France and Germany.
French word for castle (aka Castello). Often used alongside the name of an estate winery.
- Clarification and Fining
A process after fermentation where proteins and dead yeast cells are removed. To clarify, either a protein, such as casein (from milk) and egg whites or a vegan clay-based agent like bentonite or kaolin clay are added to wine. These fining agents bind to suspended particles and cause them to drop out of the wine.
Typically used to describe the classic or historic boundaries of a wine zone which was later amended. For example, Chianti Classico is within the larger Chianti zone and indicates the original boundaries.
A genetic copy of a cultivar of wine grapevine. For example, there are more than 1,000 registered clones of the Pinot cultivar.
A walled vineyard or vineyard on the site of an ancient walled vineyard. You'll find this term commonly used in Burgundy, France.
Italian term for hills. (e.g. Colli Orientali – "eastern hills").
A French label term for wines from slopes or non-contiguous hillside vineyards. (e.g. Côteaux du Languedoc).
A French label term for wines from a slope or hillside (contiguous) vineyard – such as along a river. (e.g. Côtes du Rhône)
This French word translates to "growth" and indicates a vineyard or group of vineyards that are recognized for quality. Cru is usually used alongside a quality level determined by the appellation rules such as "premier cru" or "grand cru."
French for "vat" and used to denote a specific blend or batch.