A genetic copy of a cultivar of wine grapevine. For example, there are more than 1,000 registered clones of the Pinot cultivar.
Noble rot is a fungal infection caused by Botrytis cinerea, common in areas with high humidity. It is considered a flaw in red grapes and wines but in white grapes it is appreciated for making sweet wines with flavors of honey, ginger, marmalade, and chamomile.
A microscopic louse that eats Vitis vinifera roots and kills vines. It first spread throughout Europe in the 1880s and devastated the majority of the world’s vineyards except for a few places with sandy soils (the louse cannot thrive in sand). The only solution was to graft Vitis vinifera vines onto other vine species’ rootstocks, including Vitis aestivalis, Vitis riparia, Vitis rupestris, and Vitis berlandieri (all native American species). To date, there is still no cure for grape phylloxera.